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Volume 22 Issue 2

Being a professor, I'm told, is one of the most rewarding professions a person can perform. Not surprisingly, we seem to retire later than most, and keep working at our profession even after that, right to our last moments. We will teach adjunct for our favorite course, take on special projects for our schools, do more speaking, and almost always more writing and reviewing, some producing their magnum opus after retirement. Being professors of Bible and related areas, we may devote more time to our local church, or preaching at needy congregations. And we will always keep reading, maybe a bit more fiction and biography than we did earlier but still we have our eye on the next biblical or theological volume read.

As students, educators, and scholars, we hold in deep admiration and devotion our dear professors. They gain a special place of endearment in our hearts because they—each in their own way—nurtured us in our path toward being professors and scholars and studied preachers ourselves. We owe them so much for who we have become. I have seen giants of my life pass, I. Howard Marshall (University of Aber - deen), James D. Strauss (Lincoln Christian Seminary), Norm Ericson, and Grant Osborne (Both Trinity Evangelical Divinity School). Just the utterance of one of the names conjures up classroom memories—even memories of specific things learned. What a loss to so many when they go on to be with the Lord.

When preparing this issue, I planned that we would honor the memory of one special colleague who taught at Lincoln Christian Seminary for over 25 years, Gary Hall, who died on June 15, 2019, at the age of 78, after a long battle with brain cancer and other complications. The planned tribute article to Gary was written and bibliography compiled by former student, Blair Wilgus, Professor of Old Testament at Hope International University. Blair and two others, Jason Lecureux, and James Estep, respectfully put together an excellent festschrift in honor of Gary, published in 2013 by Mosaic Press, entitled Deuteronomy: The Life of the Prophets and the Life of the Church. The very handsome volume includes very good articles, five from former students who have earned doctorates in OT, plus seven by Lincoln colleagues and academic friends. Unfortunately, Mosaic (located in Australia) has closed and no copies are now available to the public other than through libraries.

After not hearing back regarding one author's final read-through of his article being published in this issue, I did some digging only to discover that he had passed two months before Gary. Daniel Fletcher, who taught for Amridge University from his home in Norwood, Pemmsylvania, died on March 27, 2019, at the age of 44. He died due to complications from cystic fibrosis which he dealt with his whole life. And even later, as I was editing through the book reviews, I discovered we also have a review in this issue of Daniel's last book, published in 2018, titled: Psalms of Christ: The Messiah in Non-Messianic Psalms. Publication of Daniel's article and review of his book stand as a memorium to him in this issue.

I was fortunate to be a good friend of Gary's and was blessed to be able to see him shortly before his passing. He seemed gratified that his life work as a professor was recognized by the Lifetime Achievement Award we were able to present to him by video at this year's SCJ Conference at Johnson University. He so much deserved to be only our third honoree of this award, his life serving as a picture-perfect role model of a scholar-teacher with a pastor's heart. I am so indebted to him for his contribution to SCJ and the SCJ Conference. He served as consulting editor for thirteen years, for much of that time also managing Old Testament book reviews as well as evaluating OT articles that I received. He has been a constant presence at the SCJ Conference from the beginning, delivering numerous parallel sessions. He is among the original few who for the eight years before that was part of just a handful of scholars who held "Fellowship of Professors" meetings while I was at St. Louis Christian College (giving a paper as early as 1992). With fewer attendees, I was constantly in need of people to present papers, and Gary would always come through to present his well-prepared papers, usually on Deuteronomy, one of the books to which he devoted his life.

I still remember with deep gratitude my first contact with Gary in 1984 while he was dean at Kentucky Christian College. I was a PhD student near to completing my degree in New Testament at the University of Aberdeen, Scotland, sending out resumes to deans for potential job hopes. Gary responded with the most encouraging letter of all. Not knowing me at all, he gave me hope to keep moving toward my future to teach. Little did I know then that Gary would wind up being such a good friend and advisor. He has been a treasure to be able to know.

I did not know Daniel Fletcher, but I have seen the posts of several former students who speak of gratitude and thanksgiving for his influence on them. He received his Ph.D. in New Testament at Westminster Theological Seminary, having previously earned his M.Div. from Lipscomb University, as well as his Master and Bachelor of Arts in Biblical Studies from there. He wrote his dissertation on "The Wilderness Motif in John 3:1-21 and Its Impact on Johannine Signs of Faith," which was published by Wipf and Stock in 2014. Daniel published five academic articles, including two in Restoration Quarterly, one on Alexander Campbell and adult baptism, as well as articles in other publications, including the twelve in the

Baker Illustrated Bible Dictionary

. Daniel certainly made his mark in the few short years he was able to be actively engaged in teaching and scholarship.

Both Gary and Daniel I am sure leave behind not just beloved family but many, many students who feel so blessed to have come under their influence.

Daniel's article in this issue focuses on the intriguing topic of how Sirach's misogynistic teaching on women from Genesis 3 influenced both Jewish and Christian interpreters who followed. John Young's article investigates how the Christadelphians shifted focus over the generations on what exactly from the early church should be restored. John Davis Jones's article uncovers how Alexander Campbell's postmillennial view colored his interpretation of Daniel. Jonathan Totty's article, winner of the 2017 SCJ Conference graduate student paper award, explains how the ontology of Irenaeus should be described as "participatory" because it expects humanity to be involved in doing the work of God. David Fiensy's article represents his 2019 SCJ Conference lecture which delves into the similarity between common diseases of "ordinary folk" in the New Testament period and many, current populations. Lastly, Craig Keener's article, one of his two lectures from the 2019 SCJ conference, reveals Paul's teaching regarding the renewal of the mind in Romans to be fueled by the energizing of the Holy Spirit in people's lives.

The 19th annual SCJ conference heads back to Johnson University, Knoxville, TN, on March 20-21, 2020 (Friday, 8:00 AM–8:00 PM; Sat, 8:00 AM–1:00 PM). This represents a date change from earlier announcements. The theme is Politics and the Stone-Campbell Movement. Featured speakers include: Shaun Casey, Director of the Berkley Center for Religion, Peace and Public Affairs and Professor of the Practice in Georgetown University's Walsh School of Foreign Service, who will present "The Impact of Stone-Campbell Ideals: My Life in Political and Public Service" and "The Office of Religion and Global Affairs under Barack Obama: My Perspective"; Jess Hale, Attorney with the Tennessee General Assembly and Staff to a Tennessee Governor and a U.S. Senator, who will present "Disciples at Public Tables: A Public Servant's View of SCM Engagement with Public Policy;" and Richard Cherok, Professor of History, Ozark Christian College, "Citizen Campbell: Alexander Camp - bell and Early American Politics." For more information on parallel sessions, study groups, registration, and accommodation, go to: Preregistration opens January 20 and closes March 8.

William R. Baker, Editor

University of Alabama


This article explores how beliefs about the earliest Christians changed over time within Christadelphian theology. The Christadelphians descend from the Stone- Campbell Movement, and like many restorationist groups, they contend that the blueprints for rebuilding the original Christian community are clearly spelled out within Scripture. Yet examining a selection of representative theological works from across several generations reveals that even as Christa - delphians continued to believe that the early church should be restored, the specifics of what they sought to restore changed.

Freed-Hardeman University


Alexander Campbell’s postmillennialism influenced his interpretation of Daniel’s kingdom prophecies and informed his understanding of the mission of Restoration Movement churches. While few would likely agree with his interpretations today, all would do well to emulate Campbell in the way his eschatological hope helped fuel his unceasing efforts for the sake of the kingdom.

Episcopal Church of the Annunciation, Lewiston, TX


Irenaeus’s theme of the divine economy describes a participatory ontology because it expresses his understanding of humanity’s participation in the life and work of God as it pertains to ontology. His conception of the divine economy develops in the context of his interaction with second-century heresies and the Scriptures. Irenaeus conceives reality as a participatory ontology in which what it means to be authentically human is determined by economy of God.

Turner School of Theology


For Ben Sira, a scribe passes on Israel’s interpretive traditions to successive generations, often transmitting the tradition in his own words or even creating it himself. Ben Sira exhibits this latter phenomenon with his interpretation of the fall in Genesis 3 and his resounding condemnation of Eve. This article proposes he inherits a particular view of women from his Hellenistic culture and then creates an interpretive tradition that reads the Genesis narrative through misogynistic lenses. Ben Sira—true to his profession as a scribe—passes on his original interpretation to future generations of interpreters, including the author of Life of Adam and Eve, the Apostle Paul, Philo, and Irenaeus, each of whom transmit the tradition uniquely.



While excavations of cities, villages, palaces, and art works have their place in providing context for NT texts, the lives of the non-elites—the ninety-nine percent— are increasingly recognized as important to biblical interpretation. This essay presents evidence of disease from archaeological excavations of Late Second Temple Israel and the wider Roman Empire and compares it with modern demographics. In doing so, it seeks to offer insight into the “ordinary folk” who populated the Greco-Roman world at the time of Jesus and the early church.

Asbury Theological Seminary


Contrary to the tendency of modern Western churches to dichotomize the activities of the human mind and spirit, Paul’s depiction of believers’ renewal in Christ emphasizes both. This essay explores several Pauline passages concerning the Spirit’s renewal of the mind. Paul urges believers to live not according to the reasoning of this world but from the eternal perspective this foretaste of the coming age offers.

Hope International University


Gary Hall passed away on June 15, 2019, surrounded by his family. His life and work impacted people all over the world and their lives and their Kingdom work are better for having known him.

Download book reviews for this issue.

List of Books Reviewed

Michael J. KRUGER. Christianity at the Crossroads: How the Second Century Shaped the Future of the Church
(JASON FIKES Director Abilene Christian University Press)

Gary W. JENKINS. Calvin’s Tormentors: Understanding the Conflicts That Shaped the Reformer
(NICHOLAS A. CUMMING Visiting Assistant Professor of Religion Pepperdine University)

Brandon J. O’BRIEN. Demanding Liberty: An Untold Story of American Religious Freedom
(ZANE GRIGGS Adjunct History Professor Cincinnati Christian University)

W. Bradford LITTLEJOHN. The Peril and Promise of Christian Liberty: Richard Hooker, the Puritans, and Protestant Political Theology
(SEAN C. HADLEY PhD Student Great Books Honors College, Faulkner University)

Stephanie L. DERRICK. The Fame of C. S. Lewis: A Controversialist’s Reception in Britain and America
(FRANK V. BELLIZZI Instructor of History Amarillo College)

Marc CORTEZ. Resourcing Theological Anthropology: A Constructive Account of Humanity in the Light of Christ
(JAMES ROBERT ROSS Family Therapist St. Petersburg, FL)

Michael J. THATE, Kevin J. VANHOOZER, and Constantine R. CAMPBELL, eds. “In Christ” in Paul: Explorations in Paul’s Theology of Union and Participation
(DAIN ALEXANDER SMITH PhD Student Asbury Theological Seminary)

Jonathan KING, The Beauty of the Lord: Theology as Aesthetics. Studies in Historical and Systematic Theology
(MATTHEW S. MILLER PhD Student Kearley Graduate School of Theology, Faulkner University)

Thomas R. SCHREINER. Covenant and God’s Purpose for the World
(BRYANT K. OWENS Adjunct Faculty Volunteer State Community College)

Hans MADUEME and Michael REEVES. Adam, The Fall, and Original Sin: Theological, Biblical, and Scientific Perspectives
(BRIAN D. SMITH President Dallas Christian College)

Nicholas TAYLOR. Paul on Baptism: Theology, Mission and Ministry in Context
(KEVIN W. LARSEN Vice President for Academic Affairs Professor of New Testament Mid-Atlantic Christian University)

Ian Christopher LEVY. Introducing Medieval Biblical Interpretation: The Senses of Scripture in Premodern Exegesis
(JOHN R. KERN PhD Student Boston College)

Keith D. STANGLIN, The Letter and Spirit of Biblical Interpretation: From the Early Church to Modern Practice
(J. EDWARD WALTERS Associate Professor of Religion Rochester University)

K. C. RICHARDSON. Early Christian Care for the Poor: An Alternative Subsistence Strategy under Roman Imperial Rule
(LES HARDIN Professor of New Testament Johnson University Florida)

John GOLDINGAY. A Reader’s Guide to the Bible
(JOSEPH MUELLER PhD Candidate Fuller Theological Seminary)

Lois TVERBERG. Reading the Bible with Rabbi Jesus: How a Jewish Perspective Can Transform Your Understanding
(LAURA MCKILLIP WOOD Registrar Nebraska Christian College)

John H. WALTON. Old Testament Theology for Christians
(KELLY D. DAGLEY Assistant Professor of Biblical Studies Hope International University)

Randall PRICE and H. Wayne HOUSE. Zondervan Handbook of Biblical Archaeology
(MATTHEW D. GLASSMAN Adjunct Professor of Hebrew Yale University)

Kyle R. GREENWOOD, ed. Since the Beginning: Interpreting Genesis 1 and 2 through the Ages
(WES ARBLASTER Lead Pastor Restoration Park Church, Medway, OH)

C. John COLLINS. Reading Genesis Well: Navigating History, Poetry, Science, and Truth in Genesis 1–11
(DARYL DOCTERMAN Professor of Biblical Studies Cincinnati Christian University)

Daniel H. FLETCHER,1 Psalms of Christ: The Messiah in Non-Messianic Psalms
(GARY H. HALL Professor of Old Testament, Emeritus Lincoln Christian Seminary)

Glenn PEMBERTON. A Life That Is Good: The Message of Proverbs in a World Wanting Wisdom
(DAVE BLAND Professor of Homiletics Harding School of Theology)

Lindsay WILSON. Proverbs. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries
(DARYL DOCTERMAN Biblical Studies Adjunct Cincinnati Christian University)

Peter STUHLMACHER. Biblical Theology of The New Testament
(CLETUS HULL Professor of New Testament Biblical Languages Institute)

Brent NONGBRI. God’s Library: The Archaeology of the Earliest Christian Manuscripts
(JAMES W. YUILE Adjunct Assistant Professor of Ministry and Biblical Studies Hope International University)

Richard BAUCKHAM. The Christian World around the New Testament
(JEFF PETERSON Professor of New Testament Austin Graduate School of Theology)

Eckhard J. SCHNABEL. Jesus in Jerusalem: The Last Days

Douglas A. CAMPBELL. Paul: An Apostle’s Journey
(D. CLINT BURNETT Lecturer of New Testament Johnson University)

N.T. WRIGHT. Paul: A Biography
(JOE C. GRANA Dean Hope International University)

Andreas WILLI. Origins of the Greek Verb
(JAMES E. SEDLACEK PhD Student University of Manchester, UK)

David WENHAM. From Good News to Gospels: What Did the First Christians Say about Jesus?
(DANNY YENCICH PhD Student in New Testament University of Denver & Iliff School of Theology)

D. H. WILLIAMS, trans. and ed. Matthew: Interpreted by Early Christian Commentators
(KORY EASTVOLD Lincoln Christian University)

Adam WINN. Reading Mark’s Christology under Caesar: Jesus the Messiah and Roman Imperial Ideology
(THOMAS SCOTT CAULLEY Associate Professor of New Testament Kentucky Christian University)

Ben C. BLACKWELL, John K. GOODRICH and Jason MASTON, eds. Reading Mark in Context: Jesus and Second Temple Judaism
(THOMAS SCOTT CAULLEY Associate Professor of New Testament Kentucky Christian University)

William LOADER. Jesus in John’s Gospel: Structure and Issues in Johannine Christology
(STEWART PENWELL Adjunct Professor Cincinnati Christian University)

Jerry L. SUMNEY. Steward of God’s Mysteries: Paul and Early Church Tradition
(ZANE MCGEE PhD Candidate Emory University)

Mark D. NANOS. Reading Corinthians and Philippians within Judaism
(SAMUEL TURPIN Adjunct Professor of New Testament Lincoln Christian University)

Chosen by Andrew NicholsLincoln Christian University
SCJ 22.2 Quotables
View Quotables from Other Issues Here

Featured Quote:

"Many (possibly most) children and even adults in Late Second Temple Israel likely never felt well."

David A. Fiensy, "Archaeology and New Testament Studies: A New Emphasis" (SCJ 22.2:223)

"The Christadelphians' conceptions of the early church changed between 1848 and 1920. To be sure, the early church remained paramount over time. However, its borderline perfection was fully imitable according to only some, not all, Christadelphians."

John Young, "Christadelphian Blueprints for Restoring the Early Church, 1848–1920" (SCJ 22.2:177)

"Rhetorical similarities across generations have frequently papered over less obvious theological developments, shifts so gradual that the believers themselves have not always noticed."

John Young, "Christadelphian Blueprints for Restoring the Early Church, 1848–1920" (SCJ 22.2:165)

"Modern churches within the Stone-Campbell Movement would likely not agree with Campbell's interpretations of Daniel's kingdom prophecies, but the strong connection between his eschatological hope and his unceasing efforts for the sake of the kingdom is admirable."

John Davis Jones, "Alexander Campbell and the "Kingdom" Prophecies of Daniel" (SCJ 22.2:187)

"Campbell used the prophecies of Daniel to promote his view of the Christian narrative and where the nineteenth-century restoration of the primitive church fit into the grand story of God."

John Davis Jones, "Alexander Campbell and the "Kingdom" Prophecies of Daniel" (SCJ 22.2:187)

"The economy of God is not merely God's plan to interact with creation via the supernatural, but rather God's way of supernaturally perfecting the grace that is naturally endowed in creation"

Johnathan Totty, "Irenaeus on the Divine Economy" (SCJ 22.2:193)

"For Irenaeus, the one economy of God encompasses every aspect of the relationship humanity has with God, a relationship that includes the created nature of humanity and humanity's salvation in Christ."

Johnathan Totty, "Irenaeus on the Divine Economy" (SCJ 22.2:198)

"Although perfused with patriarchy, the Hebrew Bible does not view women with contempt, as Ben Sira does. His view of women is more influenced by the patriarchal dynamics of the intertestamental period than the exegesis of biblical texts."

Daniel H. Fletcher, "The Interpretive Tradition of Eve and the Fall of Humanity in Sirach and Other Jewish and Christian Writings" (SCJ 22.2:213)

"Yet he [Ben Sira] is not interested in simply repeating the traditions verbatim; he interprets them for future generations by expounding on them. Further, he expects subsequent scribes to incorporate his insights into their own work as the process of biblical interpretation unfolds through time."

Daniel H. Fletcher, "The Interpretive Tradition of Eve and the Fall of Humanity in Sirach and Other Jewish and Christian Writings" (SCJ 22.2:202)

"Many (possibly most) children and even adults in Late Second Temple Israel likely never felt quite right, never felt well. Indeed, feelings of well-being in the majority of a population might be a modern phenomenon of developed countries. If so, how might modern readers re-imagine the first reception of some of the biblical texts and events?"

David A. Fiensy, "Archaeology and New Testament Studies: A New Emphasis" (SCJ 22.2:233)

"For illness and suffering were taken for granted in the biblical world. A careful analysis of their remains may be, as recognized over a century ago, neither: “attractive nor cheerful . . . but it may not be labor altogether useless."

David A. Fiensy, "Archaeology and New Testament Studies: A New Emphasis" (SCJ 22.2:233)

"Paul looks not for mere behavior control, which a law can provide; he insists on nothing short of a new identity."

Craig Keener, "The Mind of the Spirit in Romans" (SCJ 22.2:240)

"Although believers remain in the flesh in this life, they have a new dynamic at work in them. Instead of being conformed to the values of this age, they can be transformed by the renewing of their minds, a reversal of corrupted human knowledge that now allows them to recognize God's will properly."

Craig Keener, "The Mind of the Spirit in Romans" (SCJ 22.2:247)

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Volume 26 Issue 1

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VOLUME 26, No. 1
Spring 2023



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